A microcontroller IC was failing at apparently random I/O pins.

This is an optical image of the chemically decapsulated device.


This is a BSE SEM image of the decapsulated device.


This image shows a displaced ball bond with an elemental spectrum of the bottom of the crater.


This is a higher magnification image of the bond crater.

Bond cratering can occur at apparently random bond pads likely due to variation & non-perfect planarity of the die attachment.

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