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Plated thru hole (PTH) solder joint where the land on the solder side of the board has lifted due to a combination of excessive z-axis expansion of the laminate during wave solder and shrinkage stress in the solder fillet on cool down.
Gold embrittlement of a solder joint. The digitally enhanced "red" pixels correspond to AuSn4 intermetallic compound, lighter areas are Pb, and darker grey is Sn.
Electron beam lithography produced a pattern of gold on quartz. Feature width is 30 nm. (20,000X SEI 5KeV) (Sample courtesy of EDTEK, Inc., Kent, WA)