This is a plated thru hole (PTH) solder joint where the land on the solder side of the board has lifted due to a combination of excessive z-axis expansion of the laminate during wave solder and shrinkage stress in the solder fillet on cool down.
Gold embrittlement of a solder joint. The digitally enhanced “red” pixels correspond to AuSn4 intermetallic compound, lighter areas are Pb, and darker grey is Sn.
EDS analysis of flux residue.
Chemically decapsulated PMIC.
Metallographic section of crimped connector pin.
Fracture of a bolt as seen in the SEM.
SEM image of the head of a fruit fly.
SEM image of a ceramic sample.
Electron beam lithography produced a pattern of gold on quartz.
Feature width is 30 nm. (20,000X SEI 5KeV) (Sample courtesy of EDTEK, Inc., Kent, WA)